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Anam Akhtar,Scarlet Xiaoyan Wang,Lucy Ghali,Celia Bell,Xuesong Wen.Journal of Biomedical Research,2017,31(3):177-188
Recent advances in arsenic trioxide encapsulated nanoparticles as drug delivery agents to solid cancers
Received:May 03, 2016  Revised:July 29, 2016
DOI10.7555/JBR.31.20160059
Keywordsarsenic trioxide, solid cancer, nanotechnology, drug delivery, liposome
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Anam Akhtar Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Middlesex University, London NW4 4BT, UK
Scarlet Xiaoyan Wang Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Middlesex University, London NW4 4BT, UK
Lucy Ghali Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Middlesex University, London NW4 4BT, UK
Celia Bell Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Middlesex University, London NW4 4BT, UK
Xuesong Wen Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Middlesex University, London NW4 4BT, UK
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Abstract
      Since arsenic trioxide was first approved as the front line therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia 25 years ago, its anti-cancer properties for various malignancies have been under intense investigation. However, the clinical successes of arsenic trioxide in treating hematological cancers have not been translated to solid cancers. This is due to arsenic's rapid clearance by the body's immune system before reaching the tumor site. Several attempts have henceforth been made to increase its bioavailability toward solid cancers without increasing its dosage albeit without much success. This review summarizes the past and current utilization of arsenic trioxide in the medical field with primary focus on the implementation of nanotechnology for arsenic trioxide delivery to solid cancer cells. Different approaches that have been employed to increase arsenic's efficacy, specificity and bioavailability to solid cancer cells were evaluated and compared. The potential of combining different approaches or tailoring delivery vehicles to target specific types of solid cancers according to individual cancer characteristics and arsenic chemistry is proposed and discussed.
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